Basic knowledge of steel structure house
I.Grades and properties of steels commonly used for steel structures
1.Carbon structural steel: Q195, Q215, Q235, Q255, Q275, etc.
2.Low alloy high strength structural steel
3.High quality carbon structural steel and alloy structural steel
4.Special purpose steel
Second, the characteristics of the steel structure house:
1.Steel structure is lighter in weight
2.The reliability of steel structure work is high.
3.The steel is resistant to vibration (shock) and impact resistance.
4.The degree of industrialization of steel structure manufacturing is relatively high.
5,steel structure can be assembled accurately and quickly
6,easy to make a sealed structure
7,the steel structure is easy to corrode
8,steel structure is poor fire resistance
Third, the principle of material selection of steel structure
The material selection principle of the steel structure is to ensure the bearing capacity of the load-bearing structure and prevent brittle failure under certain conditions. Considering the importance of the structure, load characteristics, structural form, stress state, connection method, steel thickness and working environment, etc. of.
The four steel models proposed in the "Code for Design of Steel Structures" GB50017-2003 are "suitable" models, which are the first choice when conditions permit, and do not prohibit the use of other models, as long as the steel used meets the requirements of the specification. .
Fourth, the objectives and measures of the steel structure:
Steel structure engineering involves a wide range of areas and is technically difficult. It must comply with national and industry standards in the promotion and application.
The construction administrative departments of all localities should pay attention to the construction of the special stage of steel structure engineering, organize the training of quality inspection teams, and summarize the work practices and new technology applications in a timely manner. Colleges and universities, design departments and construction enterprises should accelerate the training of steel structure engineering technicians and promote the technically mature steel structure CAD.
The mass academic groups should cooperate with the development of steel structure technology, extensively carry out academic exchanges and training activities at home and abroad, and actively promote the overall level of steel structure design, production and construction and installation technology in the near future.
V. Main steel structure technical content:
(1)High-rise steel structure technology. Frames, frame supports, cylinders and mega frame structures are used according to the height and design requirements of the building. The components can be steel, stiff reinforced concrete or concrete filled steel tube.
The steel member has good ductility and can be welded steel or rolled steel. It is suitable for super high-rise buildings. The stiff reinforced concrete members have high rigidity and good fireproof performance. They are suitable for medium and high-rise buildings or bottom structures. Used only for column structures.
(2)Space steel structure technology. The space steel structure has light weight, high rigidity, beautiful appearance and fast construction speed. The ball joint plate grid, multi-layer variable cross-section grid and net shell with steel pipe as the rod are the structural types with the largest amount of space steel structure in China.
It has the advantages of large space rigidity, low steel consumption, design, construction and inspection procedures, and can provide complete CAD. In addition to the grid structure, the space structure still has a large span suspension structure and a cable membrane structure.
(3)Light steel structure technology. A new structural form consisting of a wall and roof cladding structure with light colored steel plates. Large-section thin-walled H-shaped steel wall beam and roofing truss welded or rolled by steel plate of 5mm or more, made of flexible steel support system and high-strength bolts made of round steel, the column spacing can be from 6m to 9m, span can reach 30m or more, the height can reach more than ten meters, and the light crane can be set. The amount of steel used is 20 to 30 kg/m2.
Now we have standardized design procedures and specialized production enterprises. The products are of good quality, fast installation speed, light weight, low investment, and construction is not subject to seasonal restrictions. It is suitable for all kinds of light industrial plants.
(4)Steel and concrete composite structure technology. The beam and column load-bearing structure composed of steel or steel management and concrete members is a steel-mixed composite structure, and its application range has been expanded in recent years. The combined structure has the advantages of both steel and concrete. The overall strength is high, the rigidity is good, and the seismic performance is good. When the outer concrete structure is used, it has better fire resistance and corrosion resistance. The composite structural member can generally reduce the amount of steel used by 15 to 20%.
The combination of the floor and the concrete-filled steel tubular members also has the advantages of less or no support, and convenient and rapid construction, and has a great promotion potential. Suitable for frame beams, columns and floor coverings, industrial building columns and floor coverings for multi-storey or high-rise buildings with large loads.
(5)High-strength bolt connection and welding technology. High-strength bolts transmit stress through frictional forces and consist of bolts, nuts and washers. The high-strength bolt connection has the advantages of simple construction, flexible removal, high bearing capacity, good fatigue resistance, self-locking property and high safety. The riveting and partial welding have been replaced in the engineering, which has become the main connecting means in the manufacture and installation of steel structures.
For steel members made in the workshop, thick plates should be welded by automatic multi-wire arc, and box-shaped column partitions should be welded with electric slag welding.
Semi-automatic welding technology and gas-shielded flux-cored wire and self-shielded flux-cored wire technology should be used in on-site installation and construction.
(6)Steel structure protection technology. Steel structure protection includes fireproofing, anti-corrosion and anti-rust. Generally, it is not required to be rust-proof after treatment with fire-retardant coatings, but it is still required to be treated in corrosion in buildings with corrosive gases.
There are many types of domestic fireproof coatings, such as TN series, MC-10, etc. Among them, MC-10 fireproof coatings include alkyd enamel, chlorinated rubber paint, fluorine rubber paint and chlorosulfonated paint. Appropriate coatings and coating thicknesses should be selected during construction according to steel structure type, fire rating requirements and environmental requirements.
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